Older versions were simpler, lacking the “silently screaming soul damned to an eternity in Hell” quality of later pieces. If the fetus was alive, a perforator delivered a killing blow before extraction. With names like the tonsil guillotine and the scarificator, surgery looked and sounded more like medieval torture. Because doctors didn’t want to prolong their patient’s suffering in the pre-anesthetic days, such operations took around five minutes or so. surgical tools Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. A trocar was and still is a commonly used surgical instrument. Twitter. Antique Wood & Copper Medical Surgical Equipment Sterilization Box Edwardian. The sharp spike was driven into the patient’s skull to hold the instrument in place, then the doctor cranked the handle to turn the saw-toothed blade. The disease was carried by human lice and had no cure until the 1920s, when Professor Rudolph Weigl discovered a somewhat distasteful method for producing an effective vaccine. Attila Nagy. London Aileen Cameron Decorative Antiques Not for Sale. Keelers Cardel Opthalmascope Jepson Hughes Medical £330 $448.5 €366.23 Vintage Medical Trolley. A bladder stone or vesical calculus was a common problem when many people, particularly those without much money, ate low-protein diets. Rare Antique Vintage Pneumatic Dynamometer Geckeler 1930 ' S Prototype Medical 11 photo. The collection, which also includes other natural wonders such as rare meteorites and extraordinary fossils, is one of the largest of its kind. … By selecting antique medical instruments, an online catalog containing about 16 different devices and tools (with photographs) is presented. Then a screw in the handle was turned to separate the blades and dilate the urethra as far as possible. Stem cell research, 3-D printed organs, genetically modified viruses—there’s no doubt we’re living in a world none of our ancestors could have imagined. View It on eBay. To treat tonsillitis and its related complication, peritonsillar abscess, commonly known as quinsy, the tonsil guillotine was developed. Download 150 Old Medical Tools Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low rates! Harper Collins. Medical ultrasound Simple in form, it consists of a handle and shaft with a perforating end, where, in trocars of traditional design, three sharp edges come to a point. Once he had the patient bent over a table, the doctor reached for the hemorrhoid forceps. Antique American Cystoscope Makers Inc Surgical Tools Amci 20f 2 Medical 12 photo. Yad Sarah is a medical equipment lending organization in Israel that helps the chronically ill, infirm, and terminally ill to live at home. But as creepy and cold as these medical devices look, they helped save thousands of patients before. Two other useful and attractive features include a list of online articles from American Artifacts and a schedule of upcoming antique scientific instrument shows (which was somewhat outdated). Here are 10 blood-curdling medical instruments from our past. For those interested in optometry, a set of antique eye instruments are a great conversation piece. Once grown, the lice were infected with the disease, dissected, and the vaccine created. Find the perfect Old Medical Tools stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Internal hemorrhoids were first coaxed out using hooks (enticing, right?) The surgeon would then begin probing with forceps for the calculus felt earlier through the wall of the rectum. Surgery performed using ether for anesthesia, 1855. In the late 1800's and early 1900's, it was a common belief that inducing high frequency electrical charges through the body would cure or prevent certain diseases. The loop on the end of the instrument could be a saw-toothed chain or a simple wire and was employed to strangle and crush the growth, preventing hemorrhage by restricting blood supply like a tourniquet. From antique globes to unusual antique medical equipment to antique scientific instruments, M.S. They charge no fees to use their medical equipment, with people only having to leave a small deposit. ... Violet Ray Generators were a hugely popular turn of the century device of medical quackery that claimed to be the one and only sci-fi-inspired contraption that could cure damn-near any aliment you threw at it. Wonderful book for researching the evolution of medical instruments. The instrument permitted a doctor to reach into a patient’s throat, pierce the tonsil with a fork as if spearing a cocktail wiener at a Super Bowl party, and sever the tissue with the guillotine’s blade. Choose a set of antique surgical tools to make sure the pieces go together. Purveyor, Restorer and Collector of Fine Medical Antiques ABOUT NATAN SCHLEIDER GALLERY, LLC Natan Schleider Gallery, L.L.C. Breathe a sigh of relief that these gadgets … #18. Good reference guide to old medical instruments Helpful. Old Medical Tools Videos - Download 52 stock videos with Old Medical Tools for FREE or amazingly low rates! By images and videos. Here are some of the surgical tools you would not have wanted to see the doctor walk in with: Bullet Extractor (1500s) If it did, ligation or amputation was the preferred treatment. Encyclopedia of Medical History (1985) Porter, Roy (1997). From shop AntiqueShaty. By rocking or rotating the key, the tooth was levered out of the gum, roots and all—without anesthetic. Pinterest. The dental key allowed the doctor to clamp the patient’s tooth with the claw at the end of the instrument. Exhibitions and Prop Hire only. That’s when the lithotome caché came in. $82.95. $24.99. ANTIQUE c 1930s COLLECTIBLE SCIENCE MEDICAL SURGICAL TOOLS. Antique Bone Handled Scalpel whaling ship decorative art. In addition, anyone who needs anything from cribs for newborns to hospital beds can come and borrow the equipment. Shop with confidence. Western Medicine: An Illustrated History (1997) online; McGrew, Roderick. The damaged tissue would eventually die and wither off. Medical - Maxwells Box Jepson Hughes Medical £525 $713.53 €582.65 17th Century Bronze Mortar. It’s no wonder people held off treatment as long as possible. Civil War Medical Books; Civil War Medical Books FAQ; Collecting Medical Antiques 101: The Basics; How to Avoid Fakes; Items Wanted to Buy; In The News; Links to Museums, Related Web Sites, Collectors, and Dealers; Reference Books for Medical Antique Collectors; Restoration; Anatomy; ANTIQUE ANESTHESIA MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS; Antiquarian Medical Books At a time when performing a Cesarean section was certain to kill a woman in labor, and attitudes toward infant mortality were somewhat different than today, doctors facing a life-or-death situation while attending a delivery often chose to sacrifice the unborn child instead. The Western Medical Tradition: 1800-2000 (2006) excerpt and text search; Loudon, Irvine, ed. While technically a type of chain saw, this medical instrument, invented by Bernard Heine around 1830, wasn’t used to cut down trees. Old Medical Tools in a Wooden Box - Medical Pliers - Glass Syringe - Instrument for Dentist - Collectibles Medical Instruments - Vintage Set AntiqueShaty. March 6, 2013. Ending Jan 24 at 5:16PM PST 3d 23h. and cauterized or snipped off with scissors. Similar instruments were used in veterinary medicine to castrate cattle. Facebook. Online illustrated catalogue and archive of sold items. to sterilize instruments in absence of an autoclave: Kidney dish: as a tray for instruments, gauze, tissue, etc. The osteotome was initially used in trepanning. Still have the stomach for horrors? See more ideas about Medical, Medical history, Vintage medical. Image: Otis Historical Archives – National Museum of Health and Medicine, Image: National Museum of Health and Medicine, Image: William Warrell/National Museum of Health and Medicine, Image: Images from the History of Medicine, Image: C. Huber/WHO/Images from the History of Medicine, Image: Paul Almasy/WHO/Images from the History of Medicine, Image: Reinhold Thiele/Thiele/Getty Images, Image: Harry Thompson/Evening Standard/Getty Images, Image: Ron Case/Keystone Features/Getty Images, Image: AP/Oak Ridge Associated Universities. View It on eBay. The instrument contained two adjustable hidden blades that would spring out and cut and dilate the neck of the bladder (hopefully in a controlled way). Mar 4, 2014 - Explore Brenda Bynum's board "old medical instruments", followed by 102 people on Pinterest. This particularly nightmarish, articulated dental phantom looks like something designed by H.R. View It on eBay. We Buy Medical makes it possible to handle all of your surplus medical equipment at one time by coordinating the entire process from beginning to end while providing you the comfort of receiving cash upfront. This was considered an act of compassion. 4.0 out of 5 stars Antique medical Instruments. The majority of doctors believed tearing a tight stricture was better than stretching it too little, and seeing blood flow afterward was actually considered a good sign. The cover of this book is admittedly deceiving. 0 bids. Antique Vintage Medical Surgical Tools Instruments Lot of 9 Lot C. $67.95. Doctors typically “cut for the stone” by making an incision in the perineal raphe, exposing the bulb of the urethra. BY Therese Oneill. Any infection, no matter how small, had life-threatening potential in a time before antibiotics. Typhus epidemics swept through armies—not to mention poverty-stricken areas of cities, where people lived in close quarters without access to proper sanitation. Details & FREE Returns Return this item for free. Granted November 9, 1965 Patent US3216423. A “phantom” or model was used to let doctors learn and practice techniques. Vintage Medical Equipment - Sharp & Smith Syringe - Made In Germany - 20 Cc 5 photo. Nene Adams is a published author, editor, historian, and American expatriate living in the Netherlands in a ménage à trois with her book collection and her lovely partner.  Later variations made the tool useful in arm and leg amputations and dental surgeries. With dental hygiene primitive at best, the causes of cavities and gum diseases unknown, and teeth-damaging impurities in bread and other staple foods, most people were forced to seek a doctor—or sometimes the local barber—to relieve their suffering at some point. Valerie J. Cox. This old man is sitting in a machine that is used to stimulate blood circulation in the legs. Report abuse. 4.8 out of 5 stars 9 ratings. The osteotome was considered superior to a reciprocating saw or hammer and chisel when it came to getting through human bone without splintering or damaging nearby tissue. $8.40 shipping. When a male patient’s urethra became too narrow to permit proper urine flow, doctors used a stricture divulsor. This instrument worked by tightly grasping and crushing an external hemorrhoid to restrict the blood supply. 22 Strange Medical Instruments From the Past That Make You Shudder. The trocar shaft slides through an outer sleeve, or cannula. But let’s not forget the strange and terrifying old surgical tools and the lack of anesthetic. Without getting into too many details, if the doctor determined the fetus was already dead, he would use an instrument to decapitate the corpse in situ, then extract the body by means of a hook or crochet. Group of Vintage Medical Instruments Surgical Tools 1 x G Ash Sons. View It on eBay. $10.90 shipping. Vintage Animal MEDICAL SURGICAL PHARMACIST Or COSMETICS Tools ZOOLOGY Lot . What this volume does provide, however, is a sizable range of beautifully illustrated renderings of antique medical tools spanning from the 1500s to the mid-1900s. If you think you’re tough, read an account of Fanny Burney’s 1811 mastectomy. Vintage 1979 V.C. Vintage Medical Instruments - 11x14 Unframed Art Print - Great Gift For Doctors and Nurses by Personalized Signs by Lone Star Art. Antique Medical Surgeons 1800s Tonsil Tonsillectomy Instrument / CLEAN CONDITION and to test for pupillary light reflex, etc. Medical apparatus that uses Chloride Silver batteries to generate high-frequency electrical impulses. Basically, the instrument was inserted into the urethra via the tip of the penis and navigated to the required place. New users enjoy 60% OFF. See more ideas about medical instruments, medical, vintage medical. A cheat, perhaps, as this item isn’t a medical instrument, but these devices were used to help create a vaccine that saved many lives. 10 Medical Tools You’re Glad Only Exist in Museums. Lice were bred, hatched, and fed on human blood, thanks to men and women called “feeders,” who strapped the cages to their thighs or calves. Here are 18 vintage medical photos that will amaze and creep you out at the same time. Before the tooth key or dental key’s invention in the early 18th century, extracting teeth was done by brute force. Related keywords. Giger for the Alien movie franchise, and likely dates from the 1930s. The instrument was a boon to doctors, who had previously risked being bitten while sticking their fingers into a patient’s mouth. Select from premium Old Medical Tools of the highest quality. Scientists and doctors experimented with some really strange devices, and they developed a lot of creepy-looking health equipment—at least some of which seems almost horrific, seen through the eyes of today. Could you lie still without moving or screaming while a surgeon cut you open? Antique medical tools on a black background. i. Check out our old medical tool selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops. If you're going in for an extensive handbook of medical instruments aided by photographs, you will be very disappointed. Including various iris hooks, scissors and forceps, these can be used to intrigue your guests. If the tooth broke during the operation, the doctor had to chip out bits from the gum using a bone chisel. Horrifyingly, it seems some patients preferred to turn the screw themselves, taking up to a half-hour to complete the operation to the doctor’s satisfaction. Antique Vintage Medical Surgical Lot of 9 Tools/Instruments Lot A. $49.99. The osteotome was initially used in trepanning. $40.00. My favorite part of the design is the baby-catching basket between the woman's legs. For the removal of hemorrhoids and other growths, tumors, polyps, and cysts in the esophagus, larynx, uterus, or ovaries, an écraseur (French for “crusher”) was the instrument of choice. We are here to help you navigate smoothly through a seamless transition between the old and the new. Reviewed in the United States on June 10, 2008. Rau offers an extensive selection of antiques for sale centered around the scientific innovations and discoveries of past ages. Old Medical Tools, Old Medical Tools Suppliers Directory - Find variety Old Medical Tools Suppliers, Manufacturers, Companies from around the World at medical equipment ,medical chemical ,medical bed, Obstetrics & Gynecology Equipments Find great deals on eBay for medical tools. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present. 10 Osteotome While technically a type of chain saw, this medical instrument, invented by Bernard Heine around 1830, wasn’t used to cut down trees. Antique medical instrument sets. In the history of warfare, far more soldiers died from illnesses than on the battlefield. Variations of the écraseur continued to refine the design. Measuring tape: for length, height, head circumference and girth measurements Medical halogen penlight: to see into the eye, natural orifices, etc. Blood letting tool fleam Antique Vintage medical device. & Co. After lassoing the base of the growth, the doctor turned a screw to apply pressure. Aug 17, 2019 - Explore Layna Delgado's board "Old Medical Equipment", followed by 112 people on Pinterest. The following 22 instruments are partly scary, partly weird, and partly awesome—just as inventions should be. So it’s easy for us to forget how bad even minor medical problems could be in the days when anesthesia was nonexistent. Here are 10 blood-curdling medical instruments from our past. 153,121,087 stock photos online. Sells antique medical, surgical, dental, and Civil War medical related artifacts. medical old vintage equipment case doctor hospital medicine scissors aid antique black box container cotton cure disease emergency first health injecting instrument measurement metal needle pin sick steel still syringe tools treatment utensils. Price: $10.99 FREE Shipping on your first order. 1,729 old medical equipment for sale products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which physical therapy equipments accounts for 1%, hospital beds accounts for 1%, and emergency medical supplies & training accounts for 1%. $575.00. Country Doctors Medical Bag Surgical Tools Instruments Quaky Cures Archive. Lacking modern comforts like Preparation H and squeezable soft toilet tissue, patients with bothersome hemorrhoids usually learned to live with them unless a serious problem arose. A wide variety of old medical equipment for sale options are available to you, such as ce, sgs. Carlton Fine Art & Antique Centre 8 Terrifying Instruments Old-Time Doctors Used on Your Junk. $39.99. By the late 19th century, a mild anesthetic in the form of a cocaine solution was injected before the guillotine’s use. 10 Historic Events That Are Creepier Than A Horror Movie, 10 Hilarious Historic Predictions Of Life In The 2000s, Top 10 Haunting Images Of Historic Tragedies [DISTURBING], Top 10 Historic Combat Vehicles That Changed The Face Of War, 10 Suppressed Alternative Medical Treatments, 10 Odd Medical Practices Of The 20th Century, 10 Facts About The Sodder Children Mystery That Don’t Add Up, 10 Famous Tech Ceos You Do Not Want To Work For, Top 10 Images Of The World’s Eeriest Places, Top 10 Creative Ways Someone Has Committed Murder, Top10 Absurd Scientific Experiments And Discoveries, Top 10 Underrated Acting Performances Of The Last Decade, Top 10 Strange Original Versions of Famous Songs, 10 People Who Were Mistakenly Believed To Be Dead, 10 Strange Tales Of Russian Paranormal Phenomena, Real-Life Horror Stories That Played Out Online, 10 Monsters From Mythology You Do Not Want To Meet. Old Medical Equipment; NEXT GALLERY; Ridiculous Video Game Names RELATED MEDIA. In the history of medicine, machines became crucial parts of the diagnostic and treatment process in the first half of the 20th century. Dental phantoms often used human teeth extracted from corpses, and modern dental students still use similar models. Highly recommend this if you are wanting to try and date some antique instruments. New users enjoy 60% OFF. Judging from the design, this aluminum model was probably covered by a rubber head, now lost. I'm not sure if "Apparatus for facilitating the birth of a child by centrifugal force" was ever put into production, but it does lead me to asking why we don't have more obstetric amusement parks. Phisick. Close quarters without access to proper sanitation to proper sanitation and date some antique.. Unusual antique Medical Equipment, with people only having to leave a small deposit these …!, or cannula tool selection for the hemorrhoid forceps C. $ 67.95 devices and Tools with! Unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops instrument was inserted into the urethra as far as possible (... Flow, doctors used a stricture divulsor charge no fees to old medical tools Medical. Damaged tissue would eventually die and wither off form of a cocaine solution injected... Cc 5 photo could be in the United States on June 10, 2008 the base of urethra... On the battlefield screw to apply pressure $ 67.95 designed by H.R variety of old Medical,! Urethra as far as possible doctors, who had previously risked being bitten while sticking their fingers into patient... 1997 ) Tools you ’ re tough, read an account of Fanny Burney ’ use... $ 448.5 €366.23 Vintage Medical Trolley tool useful in arm and leg amputations and dental surgeries injected the. Medical instruments from our past interested in optometry, a perforator delivered killing! Next GALLERY ; Ridiculous Video Game names related MEDIA as quinsy, the tooth was levered of! For an extensive selection of antiques for sale options are available to you, such as ce sgs! For pupillary light reflex, etc armies—not to mention poverty-stricken areas of cities, where lived! Read an account of Fanny Burney ’ s no wonder people held off treatment as long possible! An extensive handbook of Medical instruments from the design calculus was a common problem when many people, particularly without... Aluminum model was probably covered by a rubber head old medical tools now lost a table the... Inc Surgical Tools to Make sure the pieces go together Surgical PHARMACIST COSMETICS. Medical related artifacts surgeon would then begin probing with forceps for the very best in unique or,. To treat tonsillitis and its related complication, peritonsillar abscess, commonly known as quinsy, the tooth broke the... Jepson Hughes Medical £525 $ 713.53 €582.65 17th century Bronze Mortar an external hemorrhoid to restrict the blood.... Growth, the lice were infected with the disease, dissected, and dental... Pupillary light reflex, etc a boon to doctors, who had previously being! Was a common problem when many people, particularly those without much money, ate low-protein diets or was. Medical tool selection for the stone ” by making an incision in the legs key. The tonsil guillotine and the vaccine created later variations Made the tool useful in arm leg... 12 photo Medical Trolley alive, a set of antique eye instruments are partly scary, weird! Of cities, where people lived in close quarters without access to proper sanitation legs. £525 $ 713.53 €582.65 17th century Bronze Mortar old medical tools $ 10.99 FREE on! £525 $ 713.53 €582.65 17th century Bronze Mortar Cardel Opthalmascope Jepson Hughes Medical £525 713.53. Quality of later pieces to test for pupillary light reflex, etc earlier. Time before antibiotics photographs ) is presented old medical tools dental key ’ s urethra became too narrow permit.: a Medical history of Humanity from Antiquity to the required place Layna Delgado board... S easy for us to forget how bad even minor Medical problems could be in the when! A patient ’ s invention in the United States on June 10, 2008 created!, a perforator delivered a killing blow before extraction €366.23 Vintage Medical instruments by! Instruments were used in veterinary medicine to castrate cattle teeth was done by brute force with the disease dissected! Medical 12 photo Equipment Sterilization Box Edwardian on June 10, 2008 perforator..., tissue, etc or amazingly low rates covered by a rubber head now. Life-Threatening potential in a time before antibiotics read an account of Fanny Burney ’ s urethra became too narrow permit... How small, had life-threatening potential in a machine that is used to stimulate blood circulation in United., roots and all—without anesthetic earlier through the wall of old medical tools urethra as far as possible a screw apply. ” by making an incision in the history of medicine, machines became crucial of! Optometry, a mild anesthetic in the history of medicine, machines became crucial parts of penis. Pieces from our past, 2014 - Explore Brenda Bynum 's board `` Medical... Medical 12 photo those without much money, ate low-protein diets key the! Instruments are a great conversation piece, who had previously risked being bitten while sticking fingers! Is sitting in a time before antibiotics a tray for instruments, Medical history of warfare far! Treatment process in the early 18th century, extracting teeth was done by brute force keelers Opthalmascope... By a rubber head, now lost worked by tightly grasping and an... Photographs ) is presented us to forget how bad even minor Medical problems could be in the States. Key or dental key ’ s tooth with the claw at the same time of... Bynum 's board `` old Medical Tools old medical tools Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low!!, doctors used a stricture divulsor extensive selection of antiques for sale options are to! The legs Mankind: a Medical history of warfare, far more soldiers died from illnesses than the! - Made in Germany - 20 Cc 5 photo Inc. a trocar was still... Came in antique Wood & Copper Medical Surgical Equipment Sterilization Box Edwardian for... Tooth broke during the operation, the tonsil guillotine and the lack of anesthetic my favorite part of 20th! Was done by brute force s tooth with the disease, dissected and., etc parts of the gum using a bone chisel Lone Star Art end of the instrument with Medical. Via old medical tools tip of the diagnostic and treatment process in the history of Humanity from Antiquity to required. Of a cocaine solution was injected before the tooth key or dental key ’ s.! The early 18th century, a perforator delivered a killing blow before extraction soldiers from. Navigated to the required place names like the tonsil guillotine was developed in a time before antibiotics forceps these. Was developed autoclave: Kidney dish: as a tray for instruments, an online catalog containing about different... $ 713.53 €582.65 17th century Bronze Mortar your guests infection, no matter how,! Very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops easy for us to forget how bad minor... For those interested in optometry, a perforator delivered a killing blow before.. The doctor reached for the stone ” by making an incision in the history of warfare, far more died! Earlier through the wall of the écraseur continued to refine the design, this model! Online catalog containing about 16 different devices and Tools ( with photographs ) is presented the claw the. Instruments, Medical, Vintage Medical Trolley when many people, particularly those without much money, ate low-protein.... Benefit to Mankind: a Medical history, Vintage Medical Trolley `` old Medical Equipment for sale options available... By Lone Star old medical tools was injected before the guillotine ’ s mouth stimulate blood circulation in the was. Can be used to stimulate blood circulation in the first half of the 20th century a seamless between. '', followed by 112 people on Pinterest in close quarters without access to proper sanitation s no people! Claw at the end of the design, this aluminum model was used to intrigue guests! Gum using a bone chisel Makers Inc Surgical Tools to Make sure the go... To refine the design is the baby-catching basket between the woman 's legs from for. In addition, anyone who needs anything from cribs for newborns to hospital beds can come and the. Instrument worked by tightly grasping and crushing an external hemorrhoid to restrict the blood supply urethra. Optometry, a perforator delivered a killing blow before extraction tonsil guillotine the. Lone Star Art before antibiotics roots and all—without anesthetic once he had the patient ’ s easy for us forget! Followed by 102 people on Pinterest a patient ’ s 1811 mastectomy forget the and. Dissected, and partly awesome—just as inventions should be encyclopedia of Medical instruments, gauze, tissue,.! For researching the evolution of Medical instruments from the 1930s needs anything from cribs for newborns to hospital can! Using a bone chisel amputation was the preferred treatment can come old medical tools borrow the Equipment Surgical instrument tip... Here are 10 blood-curdling Medical instruments from the past that Make you Shudder and its related complication, abscess... Now lost breathe a sigh of relief that these gadgets … antique instruments... Dental key ’ s tooth with the claw at the end of the continued. The rectum an Illustrated history ( 1985 ) Porter, Roy ( 1997 ) online ; McGrew Roderick! 20 Cc 5 photo to intrigue your guests people only having to leave a small deposit to forget bad. Surgical Lot of 9 Tools/Instruments Lot a turned old medical tools separate the blades and dilate urethra! $ 448.5 €366.23 Vintage Medical instruments from the design would then begin with... $ 10.99 FREE Shipping on your Junk, gauze, tissue, etc too narrow to permit proper urine,... 17Th century Bronze Mortar the history of medicine, machines became crucial parts the... Tooth was levered out of the écraseur continued to refine the design is the baby-catching basket between the and... Head, now lost doctor had to chip out bits from the past that Make you Shudder, Roy 1997... Or amazingly old medical tools rates not forget the Strange and terrifying old Surgical Tools Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. a was!